Timing the “Fun” to the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency Training Program
Purpose: To determine the time required by Obstetrics/Gynecology (OBGYN) residents to gain proficiency with FLS skills
Background: FLS is a standardized assessment of laparoscopic knowledge and skills and an eligibility requirement of The American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) Qualifying Exam. There is no published data on expected training time to guide curricula planning or how PGY level, prior surgical experience, or milestone assignment may associate with FLS skill acquisition.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed at a community based hospital where PGY2-4 residents were consented to participate in a structured FLS curriculum, which included five skill sessions supervised by gynecologic surgical faculty. Time spent in supervised and self-study sessions was recorded. A baseline and final assessment of FLS skills was administered noting errors and time to complete. Participants reported PGY level, number of prior laparoscopic hysterectomy cases, and their endoscopic technical skill milestone levels, which were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis.
Results: No residents (n=17) passed the baseline assessment. All participants passed the final assessment after curriculum completion with improvement in time (-12.2 minutes p = 0.0005) and reduction in errors (-2.5, p = 0.0025). The amount of structured time spent with a faculty member was correlated with improvement in assessment time (r=0.5979)with at least 155 minutes demonstrating significant improvement (p = 0.009). PGY level, milestone level, number of laparoscopies, and self-directed practice were not associated with improvement in performance.
Discussion: Deliberate practice was the driving factor for FLS skill acquisition independent of PGY, milestone, surgical experience, or self-directed practice time.
Minimally Invasive Surgery, Simulation, GME, Medical Knowledge, Residency Director, Faculty, 2020, SES,
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Learner-Initiated Feedback Framework Trial (LIFFT): a Formal Framework for Perioperative Feedback
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a learner-initiated framework for perioperative feedback on the frequency and satisfaction of resident feedback.
Background: Procedural feedback is an important aspect of resident education and surgical performance improvement. Satisfaction with feedback has been low in our program (64% reported somewhat, very or extremely satisfied) compared to the ACGME national average (72%).
Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of OBGYN residents at Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center. A learner-initiated framework was implemented for 3 months of gynecologic cases. After a pre-survey was performed the framework was introduced via didactic. Residents completed immediate postoperative surveys following each case. Residents and faculty completed a post-intervention survey. Primary outcome was proportion of cases in which feedback was given. To detect a 25% difference in feedback frequency, a total of 99 cases were required with 80% power.
Results: Before intervention, residents reported feedback in 25 of 42 cases (59.5%), compared to 82 of 122 cases (67.2%) during the study period (NS). Resident satisfaction (reported sometimes, very, or extremely satisfied) with feedback increased from 67.9% to 90.3% (p=0.003). Residents also reported both more frequent review of case goals (p<0.01) and receipt of feedback (p=0.007).
Discussion: Learner-initiated framework objectively raised frequency of feedback received from faculty, albeit non-significantly. Subjectively, residents indicated they received more frequent feedback and were more satisfied with that feedback. This trial demonstrated that a formal framework for perioperative feedback significantly improved resident satisfaction with feedback and should be considered for routine use at USC.
Assessment, GME, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, Residency Director, Faculty, Resident, 2020, SES,
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Does Self Evaluation Improve Surgical Skills? A Randomized Control Trial: A Pilot Study
Précis: This study investigated the effect of self-evaluation on the improvement of surgical skills by comparing OSATS scores over a 4-month period to determine if the addition of a self-evaluation improved surgical skills more than instructor evaluation alone.
Purpose: To determine if self-evaluation improves surgical performance more than instructor evaluation alone.
Background: The OSATS score is a validated rating scale for the evaluation of surgical skills. Self-evaluation using OSATS has been compared to instructor evaluation to determine the correlation of the scores. Self-evaluation in combination with instructor evaluation to improve surgical skills has not been studied.
Methods: A RCT was performed in which learners, PGY 1-4, were randomized into either the control group who only received instructor OSATS evaluations or the experimental group who received instructor evaluations as well as self-evaluations. Everyone received the same instructions and performed the same simulation which was videotaped for review. The instructor was blinded to each arm and the simulation was repeated after four months. The primary outcome was the change in instructor OSATS score over the study period.
Results: Fifteen residents were enrolled and completed the study. There was no difference in the change in instructor OSATS score (p=0.726). There was a correlation in the learner and instructor score for time and motion (p= 0.02) and instrument handling (p=0.008). All participants reported that self-evaluation was a useful educational tool. Only participants from the experimental group reported practicing on their own time.
Discussion: The current study attempted to demonstrate the utility of self-evaluation on surgical education. The correlation between learner and instructor scores are consistent with the literature. Self-evaluation did not improve overall change in score; however, all participants found it useful and it did increase practice at home.
SES, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Clerkship Director, Residency Director, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, Assessment, Simulation, Independent Study,
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Implementing Communications Training for OB/GYN Residents: Disclosure of Adverse Peri-operative Events
Precis: This study investigated the effect of self-evaluation on the improvement of surgical skills by comparing OSATS scores over a 4-month period to determine if the addition of a self-evaluation improved surgical skills more than instructor evaluation alone.
Purpose: To study the implementation of communications training for OB/GYN residents on the disclosure of adverse peri-operative events
Background: Communication skills are key components of the patient-physician relationship, however, these skills are not routinely taught during OB/GYN residency or fellowship. As OB/GYNs, disclosure of serious news happens routinely in various aspects of patient care.
Methods: OB/GYN residents at a single institution participated in a 4-hour communication didactics session using VitalTalk methodology. Participants were surveyed at baseline, immediately following training and 3 months post-training to measure changes in comfort and confidence in the performance of communication skills. A 5 point Likert scale was used to measure comfort/confidence: Novice (1), Advanced Beginner (2), Competent (3), Proficient (4) or Expert (5).
Results: 27 residents participated in training; 8(29.6%) interns, 7(25.9%) 2nd year, 7(25.9%) 3rd year and 5(18.5) 4th years. 11/27 (40.7%) reported prior communication training. Before training, residents reported the most competence: detecting emotion cues (median: 3.1), detecting patient/family sadness (3.0) and responding empathetically (2.8). Residents felt the least competent: assessing patient/family willingness to discuss perioperative complications (2.0), assessing how much a patient/family wants to know (2.1), confirming understanding of the adverse event (2.3). Baseline comfort and skill performing these conversations was 2.1 and 1.9, respectively. Immediately post-intervention, average comfort and skill level increased to 2.8 and 2.8, respectively. 3 month data is currently being collected.
Discussion: OB/GYN residents self-rate their communication confidence and skills at an advanced beginner level. Implementation of participatory communication training for OB/GYN residents is feasible and improves both trainee comfort and skills in the disclosure of adverse peri-operative events. Further work is ongoing to understand retention of these skills to inform more longitudinal curricula.
General Ob-Gyn, Standardized Patient, Simulation, GME, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, Professionalism, Residency Director, Clerkship Director, Faculty, Resident, Student, 2020, SES,
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Simulation Increases Anticipated Usage of Trigger Point Injections in Treatment of Myofascial Abdominal Pain
PRECIS: Evaluation of a simulation model and didactic training session for the education of ACGME residents in trigger point injections for myofascial abdominal pain in chronic pelvic pain patients.
PURPOSE: To test a training module for the education of abdominal trigger point injections
BACKGROUND: For the treatment of chronic abdominal and pelvic pain, training in interventions is lacking among trainees at the residency level. One very effective and simple intervention is abdominal trigger point injections for the treatment of abdominal myofascial pain syndrome, present in 74% of women in chronic pelvic pain practices.
METHODS: This study evaluates an abdominal trigger point teaching model for the training of USMLE OBGYN residency level physicians, containing a multimedia didactic presentation and a gelatin-based abdominal wall injection model. Participants completed a 10-item knowledge pre- test and an 8-item participant experience questionnaire gauging prior knowledge and experience with myofascial pain syndrome and abdominal trigger point injections. After 5 minutes of unsupervised time with the gelatin model, a 30-minute scripted didactic session was given, participants interacted post-training with the simulation model, and a post-test was completed.
RESULTS: Trainees improved from pre-test (48%) to post-test scores (90%) and reported increasing confidence levels on a 5-point Likert scale from 1.67 pre-test to 3.7 post-test. Ninety percent of participants agreed or strongly agreed that this exercise would result in them using abdominal trigger points in their own practice.
DISCUSSION: A simple educational tool containing a short didactic educational module and gelatin simulation model increases knowledge, confidence level and the likelihood of USMLE OBGYN residents to use trigger point injections in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
SES, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, CME, Assessment, Simulation, Lecture, Gynecologic Oncology, Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, Minimally Invasive Surgery, Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, General Ob-Gyn,
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A Needs Assessment for a National Ob/Gyn Residency Education Curriculum
Purpose: We sought to determine Ob/Gyn residents’, program directors’ (PDs), and assistant program directors’ (APDs) perceptions of the need for a national Ob/Gyn residency education curriculum. This study was funded by the CREOG Empower Award.
Background: Several specialties have implemented standardized, national residency education curricula. These curricula allow residents to have equal access to a centrally located, structured, common knowledge base. In Ob/Gyn, although we have outstanding educational resources, they are not integrated into a national curriculum nor are they co-located. Rather, each residency program develops its own didactic curriculum, which requires a significant amount of time and effort and leads to variability in curriculum quality and content.
Methods: A 12-question web-based survey was developed and distributed to residents, program directors, and assistant program directors nationwide using the Ob/Gyn program coordinator’s listserve and program contact information from the ACOG website.
Results: 780 participants (651 residents, 83 PDs, and 46 APDs) completed the survey, with a diverse range of regions, program types, and program sizes represented. Almost all (97.2%) participants agreed or strongly agreed that residents nationwide should have equal access to high quality Ob/Gyn education resources. Further, 91.9% agreed or strongly agreed that core Ob/Gyn educational resources should be centrally located. A majority, 77.8% (residents 78%, PDs 75%, and APDs 78%), agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for a national Ob/Gyn residency education curriculum.
Discussions: Our results demonstrate a perceived need for a centrally located, structured national Ob/Gyn residency education curriculum.
General Ob-Gyn, Independent Study, Lecture, GME, Medical Knowledge, Residency Coordinator, Residency Director, Osteopathic Faculty, Clerkship Coordinator, Clerkship Director, Faculty, Resident, Student, 2020, CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting,
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Validation of the Animal Tissue Model for Laparoscopic Salpingectomy Training
Purpose: To gather validity evidence for a laparoscopic salpingectomy
model developed for resident training.
Background: Laparoscopic salpingectomy is a milestone procedure
for gynecologic trainees and is commonly performed in the management of ectopic
pregnancies. Opportunities to practice the use of electrosurgical devices prior
to the operating room can be limited. An animal tissue model was developed and
previously piloted at our institution for this purpose, and was modified to
include a pelvic sidewall and ovaries.
Methods: 25 simulations of laparoscopic salpingectomy were
performed by 14 trainees (5 PGY-1, 4 PGY-2, 1 PGY-3, 4 PGY-4). For
analysis purposes the PGY-3 and PGY-4 trainees were combined. Each
trainee received scripted instructions and reviewed a video with proper
technique beforehand. These recordings were evaluated by 2 blinded gynecologic
surgeons using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS)
and Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy (OSA-LS).
Results: There was good agreement between the graders with
intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.63 and 0.79, respectively, for GOALS
and OSA-LS. The mean GOALS score increased with experience (10,
13.2, and 15.5 for PGY-1, PGY-2, and PGY-3/4, respectively) and was
significantly different between PGY-1 and PGY-3/4 (two-sample t-test, p=0.004).
The mean OSA-LS score increased with experience (8.9, 14.2, and 16.2 for PGY-1,
PGY-2, and PGY-3/4) and was significantly different between PGY-1 and PGY-2
(p=0.006) and between PGY-1 and PGY-3/4 (p< 0.001).
Discussions: This training model and rubrics differentiated
experienced and novice trainees and could be used to establish a preoperative
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Student, Resident, Faculty, Residency Director, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, Assessment, Simulation, Minimally Invasive Surgery, General Ob-Gyn,
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Uptake and Efficacy of a Novel Self-Directed Foundational Curriculum for OB-Gyn Interns
Purpose: To evaluate a curriculum for OB-Gyn interns.
Background: To provide incoming interns with a reading plan,
residency leadership created a novel, self-directed, online foundational
curriculum for interns modeled after the ABOG MOC process. The curriculum
was first offered to interns starting residency in July 2017.
For each core intern clinical experience (Obstetrics, Gynecology, Family
Planning, Office) selected readings represented the foundational knowledge
expected of an OB-Gyn intern, totaling 42 readings. For each reading,
multiple choice questions highlighting the key information were crafted by
attendings to create an online 40-question pretest, self-directed
curriculum of 42 modules comprised of a reading and relevant comprehension
questions, and 80-question posttest using unique questions not
utilized in the pretest or modules.
Methods: The curriculum operated on the online educational
platform, SparkLearn. OB-Gyn interns starting residency at Vanderbilt in
July 2017 completed the pretest during orientation. Rising second-year
residents completed the posttest simultaneously at the conclusion of
intern year. The intern class completed modules at their own pace and
concluded intern year with the posttest. Pretest, module, and
posttest scoring was cataloged in SparkLearn. IRB exempt study approval
Results: For interns participating in the curriculum
(N=6), mean module completion rate was 82.71% (range 26-95%). Mean participator
pretest and posttest scores were 71.04% (SD=7.22) and 82.71%(SD=7.04),
Participator module completion rate was strongly correlated with
posttest scores (pearson coefficient 0.60) and weakly correlated to first year
CREOG scores (pearson coefficient 0.12).
Mean posttest scores at end of intern year were higher among
curriculum participators (82.71%) compared to non-participators
(75.31%) (p=0.05). Mean first-year CREOG scores for curriculum
participators were also higher (207) compared to non-participators (198)
Discussions: Our novel online self-directed intern foundational
reading curriculum had variable uptake but overall good utilization in its
first year of deployment. Compared to the preceeding intern class,
participating interns had higher posttest knowledge scores.
There was a strong positive correlation between module completion rate and
Our study was limited by small sample size (N=6), but we continue to collect
additional data with subsequent classes. Multi-site deployment might
permit correlation of curriculum utilization with milestones achievement in
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Residency Director, Medical Knowledge, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, Independent Study, Problem-Based Learning,
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Pilot Study of Interactive Video-assisted Laparoscopic Teaching for OB/GYN Surgical Residents
Purpose: It is common knowledge that athletes review tapes as
part of training. Although differences between a sports game and surgery are
obvious, both require technical skill and performing under pressure. Surgeons
may benefit from reviewing surgical tapes in training.
Background: Prior studies have explored using surgical videos to
increase exposure to operative scenarios or evaluate technical skill. However,
no standardized approach exists to incorporate video review into surgical
training, particularly in gynecology. This interactive teaching model uses
review of laparoscopic videos to enhance surgical knowledge and technique.
Methods: A gynecologic surgeon led participants through review
of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery videos. The surgeon highlighted aspects of
the video, pausing to enforce teaching points and lead discussion. Participants
completed a 25-question multiple-choice survey prior to, immediately after and
two months after the session. Individual changes in scores were analyzed before
and after aforementioned intervention, stratified by residency year.
Results: Of participants who underwent the
intervention, 100% completed the pre-survey, 60% completed the immediate
post-survey. Response rate was 40% for the 2-month post-session survey. Of
those who underwent intervention and completed the post-session survey, 71%
improved their score while 29% had no change. When stratified by year, junior
residents showed score improvement, senior residents had no change.
Discussions: Video-assisted teaching can
enhance gynecologic surgical training. It seems most beneficial
earlier in training as junior residents have yet to develop ways of doing
things. While video sessions do not replace OR time, they provide forums for
reviewing surgical approach and technique with visual aids to reinforce
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Residency Director, Systems-Based Practice & Improvement, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, Assessment, Team-Based Learning,
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Timing the “Fun” to the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency Training Program
Purpose: To determine the time required by
Obstetrics/Gynecology (OBGYN) residents to gain proficiency with FLS skills
Background: FLS is a standardized assessment of laparoscopic
knowledge and skills and an eligibility requirement of The American Board of
Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) Qualifying Exam. There is no published data on
expected training time to guide curricula planning or how PGY level, prior
surgical experience, or milestone assignment may associate with FLS skill
Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed at a
community based hospital where PGY2-4 residents were consented to participate
in a structured FLS curriculum, which included five skill sessions supervised
by gynecologic surgical faculty. Time spent in supervised and self-study
sessions was recorded. A baseline and final assessment of FLS skills was
administered noting errors and time to complete. Participants reported PGY
level, number of prior laparoscopic hysterectomy cases, and their endoscopic
technical skill milestone levels, which were analyzed using multivariate
Results: No residents (n=17) passed the baseline assessment.
All participants passed the final assessment after curriculum completion with
improvement in time (-12.2 minutes p = 0.0005) and reduction in errors
(-2.5, p = 0.0025). The amount of structured time spent with a faculty member
was correlated with improvement in assessment time (r=0.5979) with at least 155
minutes demonstrating significant improvement (p = 0.009). PGY level, milestone
level, number of laparoscopies, and self-directed practice were not associated
with improvement in performance.
Discussions: Deliberate practice was the driving factor for FLS
skill acquisition independent of PGY, milestone, surgical experience, or
self-directed practice time.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Faculty, Osteopathic Faculty, Residency Director, Residency Coordinator, Medical Knowledge, GME, Simulation, Minimally Invasive Surgery, General Ob-Gyn,
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The Magic of Reflection: Facilitating Resident Discussion of Challenging Family Planning Patient Scenarios
Purpose: To describe residents’ experiences of a guided
reflection workshop about patient interactions which provoke negative emotions
in the physician
Background: In 2016 we trained faculty to facilitate a guided
reflection workshop. The Professionalism in Reproductive Healthcare
Workshop (PRHW) guides obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residents in
exploring interactions with challenging patients, particularly those seeking
family planning care.
Methods: Faculty volunteered for the training via a community
listserv, underwent a half-day training, and then led workshops at 23 different
institutions. Institutions were informed about the workshop by listserv emails,
and scheduled workshops into their resident didactics. We conducted pre- and
post-training surveys and descriptive analyses to assess post-workshop resident
satisfaction and changes in attitudes about patient scenarios using Likert
Results: From 2016 to 2019, 27 faculty conducted 28 workshops
with 222 residents in the US and Canada. We collected 139 post-workshop surveys
(63%), and 72 matched pre- and post-workshop surveys. Patient scenarios
residents most frequently identified as challenging were women who had more
than one abortion, and women who did not want to become pregnant but were not
using contraception. In matched surveys, learners demonstrated greater
awareness of reasons a patient might not initiate contraception after abortion
and greater acceptance of that decision compared with responses before the
workshop (p< 0.01). The majority (91%) rated the workshop as
Discussions: Resident learners exhibited more understanding
attitudes towards challenging family planning patient scenarios after
participating in the PRHW. Supporting resident reflections about challenging
patient scenarios may improve their ability to provide more high-quality,
patient-centered family planning care.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Student, Resident, Faculty, Osteopathic Faculty, Residency Director, Residency Coordinator, Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, GME, Contraception or Family Planning,
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Text vs Email for a Question of the Day: Which do Today’s Medical Students Prefer?
Purpose: Compare completion rates and satisfaction of
question of the day(QOD) received via text vs email.
Background: Fast, hands on learning e-tools are a popular
effective technique with current generation of medical learners.
Methods: Twenty-eight questions of the day(QOD) developed
focusing on commonly missed NBME exam concepts. A prospective cohort study of
ob/gyn clerkship students conducted. Students self-selected to receive QOD by
text or email from 1/19-7/19. Students received QOD nightly on weekdays via
text or email, completion was optional.
Primary outcome was overall response rate(RR). Secondary outcomes include
RR/question and average weekly RR. Qualitative feedback regarding satisfaction,
time spent, and utility also obtained.
Results: Eighty-one medical students participated, 40 selecting
text and 41 email. In sum, 863 texts and 1269 emails sent during study
period. Overall text RR was significantly lower than
email(55.2%vs78.6%,p< 0.001). For no question was text RR greater than email
RR. Average RR did not vary by week(wk1: text 55% vs 83% email, wk6: text 64%
vs email 77%).
43/81(53%) students gave qualitative feedback, 28/41 from email cohort, and
15/40 text. 86% found the QOD helpful/very helpful(no difference by mode of
receipt). However, email recipients more likely to find it very
helpful(54%vs13%,p=0.02). 77% found the level of difficulty to be “just
right”,(no difference by mode of receipt). The QOD took all students less than
5 minutes. Nearly all(93%) students found the QOD worthwhile and 98% would
recommend to future students.
Discussions: Surprisingly, QOD completion rates were higher with
email than text, though satisfaction and perceived utility high in both
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Student, Faculty, Clerkship Director, Medical Knowledge, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, UME, Assessment, Independent Study, General Ob-Gyn,
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Spellbound: Impact of a Professionalism Workshop on Abortion Attitudes for Residents at Catholic Programs
Purpose: To determine if a professionalism workshop that
explores attitudes about abortion care influences ob-gyn resident attitudes at
Catholic residency programs.
Background: Catholic residency programs face institutional
barriers to abortion training.
Methods: Between 2018-2019, we provided professionalism
workshops at five Catholic programs that do not provide abortion training.
Participants received a pre and post survey related to abortion training and
attitudes. We compared Likert responses using Wilcoxon matched pair
Results: 41 residents (87% of eligible residents) completed
both surveys; 29.3% reported Catholic religion, 14.6% reported their personal
views on reproductive care are in line with their institution, and 12.2% reported
selecting a Catholic program based on its religious affiliation. With
respect to prior abortion experiences, 75.6% provided options counselling,
41.5% provided abortion referral, and 9.8% provided first-trimester abortion
for nonmedical reasons. Views on whether abortion or related
circumstances is justifiable did not change for a patient presenting with an
undesired pregnancy (p=0.32), but demonstrated increasing acceptance for the
following circumstances: (1) patient presenting for abortion at 19 weeks
(p=0.001), (2) patient presenting for second abortion (p=0.01), and (3) patient
declining post-abortal contraception (p< 0.001). Emotional reactions
to scenarios were unchanged. When asked about when abortion is morally
acceptable, views became more accepting for patients presenting with financial
inability (p< 0.01) and for disruption to career or education (p< 0.01).
Discussions: A professionalism workshop can be a useful tool for
residents at Catholic training programs to explore their abortion attitudes and
results in more accepting attitudes toward women who choose abortion in certain
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Residency Director, Professionalism, Systems-Based Practice & Improvement, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, GME, Assessment, Public Health, Contraception or Family Planning,
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Sexual Harassment in Obstetrics and Gynecology Postgraduate Training
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sexual harassment(SH)
in obstetrics and gynecology(OBGYN) residency and fellowships.
Background: SH is a common problem the U.S. with 1 in 3 women
experiencing some form of it in their lifetime. According to the National
Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM,) 24-50.4% of female
medical students experienced sexual harassment, which is more than their peers
in science and engineering, and 220% more than female students in non-science
Methods: We conducted a voluntary, anonymous survey study of
all U.S. OBGYN trainees in ACGME-accredited residency and fellowship programs.
The survey included the validated Sexual Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) short
form, and other questions including demographics. The NASEM definition of SH
was used in the study and described to the participants in the survey
instructions. Descriptive statistics were utilized.
Results: The survey was distributed to 1473 trainees in the US;
395 responses were received (26.8%response rate: 86%females, 13.5%males). 20.6%
of participants (78/378: 21.1%females, 21.7%males) responded yes to having been
sexually harassed during their OBGYN training. Based on the SEQ questionnaire,
69.1% OBGYN trainees (253/366) had experienced some form of SH. Sexist
hostility was the most common form of SH followed by crude behavior
(211/253,83.4%;182/253,71.9% respectively). Males and senior OBGYN attendings
(154/208,74.4%;110/395,27.9% respectively) were named the most common
perpetrator; the operating room was the number one location for SH followed by
Labor and Delivery (97/395,24.6%;83/395, 21.0% respectively).
Discussions: Although OBGYN is a female dominated field, the rate
of SH of trainees remains high according to our data.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Student, Resident, Faculty, Osteopathic Faculty, Residency Director, Residency Coordinator, Professionalism, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, GME,
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Residents as Preceptors: Developing a Teaching Curriculum for Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents
Background: Residents serve a critical role in medical student
education as near-peer educators. Positive experiences with residents and
perceived quality of teaching have been associated with improved clerkship
satisfaction and career choices in that discipline. ACOG and ACGME milestones
further emphasize the importance of residents as educators. While the role of
residents as preceptors is widely acknowledged, preparation for that role is
Methods: A single arm interventional study with pre and post
intervention analyses was used. A four part lecture series was designed and
implemented during obstetrics and gynecology resident didactics at the
University of Minnesota. Residents completed blinded and paired online
surveys pre and post lecture. 5 point Likert scale responses
were summarized and compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Nominal Symmetry
Results: There was a statistically significant
difference in the distribution of rankings towards the positive between pre and
post surveys for questions regarding evaluation and teaching
. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of
rankings for questions regarding feedback. Barriers to teaching were also
Discussions: Implementation of a teaching curriculum significantly
improved residents\' perceived preparedness and understanding of medical student
teaching and preceptorship but did not improve attitudes towards and frequency
of feedback. Strengths of this study include description of a novel, resident
led program. Limitations include a small sample size at a single institution
within a single specialty.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Clerkship Director, Residency Director, Professionalism, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, GME, Assessment, Lecture, General Ob-Gyn,
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Resident Surgical Evaluations: Feasibility of Integration into the Electronic Medical Record (EMR)
Purpose: Describe the development and implementation of a
surgical evaluation tool within the Epic EMR to facilitate real-time feedback
for resident learners.
Background: Evaluation of a resident’s surgical performance is
critical to the developing surgeon’s education but challenging for both
learners and teachers in a busy clinical environment. This study aims to describe
how a surgical evaluation tool can be integrated into the EMR and the
acceptability of the tool to both faculty and residents.
Methods: A novel tool was developed within the EMR of a single
academic hospital that triggers an automated in-basket message to the attending
surgeon upon case completion. This message directs the attending surgeon to
complete a 4 question evaluation consisting of 2 validated feedback questions
and 2 open ended questions. Upon completion, an email is sent providing residents
with immediate feedback. At the end of the study period, a survey was sent to
attending surgeons and residents to assess the acceptability of the tool.
Results: Between February 2019 and June 2019 719 cases were
performed and 553 surgical evaluations were completed (77%). The acceptability
survey was completed by 26 of 27 (96%) of residents and 14 of 16 (88%) faculty.
Among residents, 96% reported that they received more feedback because of the
tool and 85% liked receiving feedback in this way. Among faculty, 21% reported
that they felt they gave more feedback because of the tool and 93% found the
tool acceptable to use.
Discussions: Implementation of an automated surgical evaluation
tool within the EMR is feasible, acceptable to use, and well received by
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Osteopathic Faculty, Residency Director, Residency Coordinator, Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Interpersonal & Communication Skills, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, Assessment, General Ob-Gyn,
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Resident Perceptions of Power-Based Violence and Impact of Bystander Intervention Training
Purpose: To evaluate resident perceptions of power-based
violence (PBV) and assess initial impact of bystander intervention (BI)
Background: Creating a safe, welcoming workplace is important in
medical education. PBV in the form of overt aggression, microaggression,
or bullying can threaten the educational community. BI training offers
residents a skill set to intervene to counteract PBV and foster a safer,
welcoming clinical environment for their teams.
Methods: Pre-training and post-training surveys
were completed by OB-Gyn residents at Vanderbilt prior to formal Green
Dots BI training. The survey assessed frequency of experienced or
witnessed PBV, sexism, and racism. Residents self-assessed their
ability to recognize overt versus subtle PBV, and whether they would intervene
in instances of PBV based on the role of the perpetrator. Residents
completing BI training were re-surveyed with the same instrument 3 months
later. Exempt IRB approval was obtained.
Results: 22 active residents were surveyed pre-training. 19
residents completed BI training and the post-training survey. Active
residents reported at least sometimes being the target of PBV (22.7%), sexism (45.5%),
or racism (9.0%). Even more residents reported at least sometimes
witnessing PBV (50.0%), sexism (59.1%), or racism (45.5%). Residents’
willingness to intervene varied by perpetrator: fellow resident (59.0%),
attending (18.2%), nursing staff (40.9%). 100% of active residents felt
obligated to foster a safe work environment free of PBV.
Among residents completing BI training,
the percentage reporting recognition of overt PBV increased
after training from 84.2% to 94.7% (p=0.29), and the percentage reporting
recognition of subtle PBV increased after training from 78.9% to 89.5% (p=0.37).
There was a modest increase after training in the percentage reporting they
would intervene for PBV perpetrated by a resident (52.6% to 57.9%, p=0.74) or
nursing staff (31.6% to 36.8%, p=0.73), but no change for faculty-perpetrated
Discussions: PBV is experienced and/or witnessed by residents not
infrequently. While residents are more likely to intervene for PBV
perpetrated by a fellow resident, they are less likely to intervene when
perpetrated by attendings or nursing staff. BI training appears to offer
modest improvements in recognition of PBV and willingness to intervene, but its
effect in this study was limited by sample size.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Student, Resident, Faculty, Clerkship Director, Residency Director, Professionalism, GME, UME, Team-Based Learning, Advocacy,
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Resident Confidence with Obstetric Ultrasound – Are We Meeting CREOG Objectives and ACGME Milestones?
Purpose: The objective of this study assess resident confidence
in obstetric ultrasound as per ACGME milestones and CREOG
objectives, and factors associated with confidence performing US independently.
Background: Performing obstetric ultrasound(US) is an ACGME
milestone, a CREOG objective, and a CREOG core procedure, though many programs
lack formal US curricula.
Methods: CREOG coordinator listserve used to distribute
27-question anonymous e-survey in 3/2018 to OBGYN residents in US and Puerto
Rico. Questions included experience performed growth US(gUS) and anatomy
US(aUS) as primary sonographer, performing US independently, and for 4th year
residents only, comfort performing US post-residency. Bivariate statistics
compared residents comfortable performing US independently to those who were
Results: 417 residents completed the survey: 88% were female,
75% from academic programs, and nearly 50% were post-graduate year(PGY)
3&4. While 89.1% had been primary sonographer for gUS, only 63% felt
comfortable performing independently. Of chief residents, 14% didn’t feel
comfortable performing gUS post-residency. In contrast, 60.9% had been primary
sonographer for aUS, only 20.1% felt comfortable performing aUS independently,
and 68.8% didn’t feel comfortable performing aUS post-residency.
Residents were more likely to feel comfortable performing gUS independently in
PGY3&4 (p< 0.01) and after longer MFM rotations(p=0.02), and less likely
when MFM fellows were present (p=0.02). Residents not comfortable performing
aUS were twice as likely to have MFM fellows (p< 0.01), and less likely to
be PGY3&4(p< 0.01).
Discussions: significant percentage of residents are not
comfortable with their ultrasound skills. This data further emphasizes the need
for structured US curricula and simulation.
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Residency Director, Patient Care, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME, Assessment, Simulation, Maternal-Fetal Medicine, General Ob-Gyn,
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Proficiency Perception and Relevance of Gynecological Procedures Among Obstetrics and Gynecology Graduates; Evaluating the Residency Surgical Curriculum
Purpose: To determine graduates’ perception of their
proficiency in gynecologic operations and the relevance of these procedures to
their current practice
Background: Program directors must certify that graduates are competent
to practice without supervision after residency. Achieving proficiency in
gynecologic surgery after 4 years is challenging. Evaluating the current
surgical curriculum is critical
Methods: A survey of 40 graduates from a single academic
instituition was conducted. 36 gynecologic procedures were listed. Each
procedure corresponded to two four-point scales (strongly agree to strongly
disagree). One scale was headed with preparation to independently perform the
operation, and the other questioned the relevance of the procedure in their
current practice. A third scale reviewed the need for additional training, and
the case/volume per year. A subgroup analysis was done to evaluate the
preferred route of hysterectomy and the rationale if vaginal hysterectomy was
Results: The response rate was 67.5%. All respondents felt
prepared to perform 25% (9/36) of procedures. More than 50% did not feel
competent performing laparoscopic single site hysterectomy, laparoscopic
myomectomy, sling, utero-sacral ligament suspension, vesico-vaginal fistula
repair, colpocleisis, and office hysteroscopy. Vaginal hysterectomy was
relevant for 78% of graduates, however, 89% performed fewer than 10 cases per
year, and 55% would benefit from additional training. More than 50% of
graduates would choose a non-vaginal route of hysterectomy, and interestingly,
93% of those based their decision on lack of comfort with the procedure
Discussions: While several gynecologic surgeries are relevant to
recent graduates’ practices, some may not feel competent performing these
procedures after residency. Vaginal hysterectomy is not commonly performed
among graduates, largely due to inexperience with the procedure
CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting, 2020, Resident, Faculty, Clerkship Director, Clerkship Coordinator, Residency Director, Residency Coordinator, Patient Care, Systems-Based Practice & Improvement, Practice-Based Learning & Improvement, GME,
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OBGYN Trainees Perception of Departmental Climate with Regards to Sexual Harassment
Purpose: To assess Obstetrics and Gynecology(OBGYN) trainees’
perception of departmental-cultural-climate(DCC) regarding sexual
Background: Positive DCC results in better psychological health
and workplace environment. Climates perceived to be permissive of SH by the
employees has lower overall work satisfaction.
Methods: Using REDCap data collection tool, we conducted an
anonymous survey of OBGYN trainees in ACGME-accredited residency/fellowship programs
in the U.S. The survey included demographics; the validated Sexual Experience
Questionnaire(SEQ) short form; and assessment of DCC via questions regarding
institutional reporting systems and trainees’ perceptions of how complaints
would be handled. Descriptive statistics were utilized.
Results: The survey was distributed to 1,473 residents/fellows
in the U.S. with 26.8%(395/1,473) response rate. The prevalence of SH was
69.1%(253/366). 90.3%(331/366) of trainees felt safe in their institution, while
only 3.0%(11/366) felt unsafe. 72.7%(8/11) of trainees who felt unsafe had
experienced SH. 88.5%(337/381) believed their SH report would be taken
seriously. 75.1%(286/381) believed privacy would be maintained. 80.3%(305/380)
thought their department would support them, and 76.7%(289/377) that the report
would be handled fairly. 15.6%(59/379) thought they would be labeled as a
troublemaker, and 10%(38/379) thought they would be punished. Only
3.3%(4/121) made an official report. 67.4%(149/221) did not tell anyone; and
39.4%(95/241) did not know of a reporting system. No action was taken for
47.5%(29/61) of the reports; the perpetrator was spoken to about their
behavior[14.8%(9/61)]; concerns were taken seriously[8.2%(5/61)]; and, concerns
were found to be unsubstantiated[1.6%(1/61)].
Discussions: OBGYN trainees are often reluctant to report SH, and
OBGYN departments may to need improvement in DCC based on our results.
GME, Systems-Based Practice & Improvement, Professionalism, Residency Coordinator, Residency Director, Osteopathic Faculty, Clerkship Director, Faculty, Resident, Student, 2020, CREOG & APGO Annual Meeting,
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